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· Milk quality control advocate the implementation of mechanical milking cows


This standard specifies the technical requirements for raw milk , testing methods , costumes, storage, transportation and cattle farm milk quality control measures.

First, the terms and definitions of the following terms and definitions apply to this standard.

1 , alcohol -positive breast refers to 72 ℃ alcohol mix , condensation occurs , lower than normal acidity ( 16-18 degrees ) milk. Note : Currently, the incidence of alcohol -positive breast is affected by many factors, enhance the body resistance is an effective way to prevent alcohol- positive milk .

2 , antibiotic milk antibiotic content > 0.9PP10 milk collectively antibiotic milk.

3 , the number of cells (SSC) represents the sum of body milk milk contains white blood cell count and the shedding of epithelial cells. Usually expressed SCC * 1000. Milk somatic cell count is an important indicator of udder health.

4 , milk acidity Acidity refers to the sum of the milk and the occurrence of natural acidity . Since the natural acidity of milk protein , citrate , phosphate , and weakly acidic substance such as carbon dioxide , the natural acidity of the milk is generally 16-18 degrees. Acidity of milk occurs during storage due to the acidity of lactic acid increases .

5, the total number of bacteria per milliliter of milk containing the total number of bacteria . Units : 400,000 / ml or less .

6 , the mechanical milking calves sucking mimic the action of a mechanical manner that the milk vacuum the milk from the pool and the fluid in the pipe nipple , the nipple end when the degree of vacuum is sufficiently large (typically reaches 5.0 MPa ) , the outer depression in the nipple internal pressure , milk is sucked out .

7 , " twice medicated bath towel dry rub " refers to a milking procedures commonly used internationally . That is the whole process of milking operations follow : first bath with special teat nipple pre- medicated bath , then dry and clean towel or small towel nipple , discard the first three of the milk, the machine milking ; milk ejection When finished, breaking the vacuum , remove milk cup, then quickly nipple medicated bath again. This process has contributed to the prevention of milking cows mastitis .

8 , over- crowded near the end when Grandma steak milk , due to human factors under pressure groups continue milking milking ; or did not pick off the vacuum cup set , empty of cattle squeeze , have called over- milking . Excessive milking cows is a major factor causing mechanical mastitis .

9 , a rod-shaped bacillus bacteria can form spores . Bacillus is the living conditions of some bacteria under adverse circumstances , such as: cold , hot , toxic, a lack of moisture and nutrients during the formation of self-protection in the form .

10 Psychrophile with cold tolerance , lipid-lowering and protease capable of producing at about 0 ℃ can grow bacteria.

Second, measures to control the quality of milk a cow Environment ( 1 ) playground area should be moderate, generally a cow average ( 25-40 ) m / head heifer average ( 8-12 ) m / head. ( 2 ) stadium should always trim , keep dry, flat, no water , feces promptly removed. ( 3 ) around the stadium and disinfected once a week to clear mosquito breeding sites . ( 4 ) barn should always clean , keep it clean and dry , a regular rodent , Mosquitocide . Barn disinfected regularly , once a week. Bed : keep the bed clean , smooth, ample padding . Disinfected regularly , once a week. ( 5 ) Cattle Body : brushed cow body , to keep cattle clean and sanitary. Regular pruning oxtail. Basic components ( 6 ) ① milking milking machine vacuum system pump : the role of the milk duct and the air inside the teat cup draw , so as to form a vacuum for milking . ② vacuum regulator : function is to maintain a stable vacuum milking system . When the vacuum pressure exceeds the standard value, to allow air into the vacuum system to maintain the proper degree of vacuum ( vacuum pressure was maintained at 4.5 MPa -5.0 MPa ) . ③ Ripple control: control group teat cup valve switch , alternately in and out of the air pulse chamber , nipple cup run by the pulsating beats and double beat is regulated . Single pulsating beats work simultaneously allows four cups of milk , alternating back and forth to work double- beat pulse action allows four teat cups . Pulsation frequency is generally ( 55-65 ) beats / min , pulsation ratio of 60:40 ④ milking Group: Set includes four milking cups and milk , a cup of milk and milk collection cup milk , a cup of milk and milk lined and stainless steel coat composition, milk cow lining direct contact with the nipple , its quality directly affects the quality and milking teat health. The material has a natural rubber , synthetic rubber, and their length of life of different materials vary , the general use of all times after 2500 to be replaced . ⑤ the claw : Milk Cup group collected transport squeeze milk , the milk is put through a set of milking the milk delivered to the pipeline . There is a small set of milk pores allow air to enter , to help stabilize the level of vacuum during milking teat cup and the milk delivery go smoothly . Holes should be checked before milking patency . ( 7 ) by a set of breast milk collection system cans , milk pumps, milk filter. ( 8 ) Automatic Cleaning System ① cleaner : milking is completed, automatic cleaning milking units and pipelines . ② cleaning agent : divided into special acidic cleaning agents and alkaline cleaners .

Third, the milking process procedures consistent use " twice dipping , paper towels dry rub ," the milking process, the process is as follows : --- clean check : Before milking the appearance of the first observation of whether or touching the breast red, swollen, hot pain symptoms or trauma. --- First head dipping bath towel dry rub , squeeze the head three milk : milk pushed his head three special containers , check to see if there is a clot milk , floc or watery milk cows before the normal machine milking ; unusual , timely reporting veterinary treatment , milking alone , mixed with non- normal milk. --- Milking machine : After the completion of the work , promptly put milking units ( sets of cups of air into the process to avoid Cup group - the time from the start within one minute nipple stimulation observed during milking . vacuum stability of milking cup group milk flow, adjust the position of milk and milk cup group row near the end , turn off the vacuum , then remove the milking units is prohibited under the pressure to avoid over- milking milking machine .. - - dipping after milking : After milking teat dipping should be carried out promptly , residence time ( 3-5 ) seconds.

Fourth, the other a fixed milking order, avoid frequent replacement milkers . 2 , after the end of milking , the cows stand 1 hour guaranteed . 3 , medicated bath to every day now with the existing , and to ensure an effective solution concentration . Dipping cups should be cleaned after use . 4 , cow antibiotic therapy only, and should use a separate milking units , each finished squeezing a cow should be disinfected after extrusion milk container placed in a separate deal . 5 , colostrum products can not be mixed with milk .

Fifth, milk cooling , storage, transport a cooling milk should first enter the cold heat exchangers, pre-cooling tank and then into the milk within two hours of cooled to below 4 ℃. 2, storage of milk cooled before shipped to processing plants, should be stored in refrigeration tank temperature is kept constant at about 4 ℃, the storage time is not more than 48 hours . 3 , with a dedicated milk tanker transport milk shipped to processing plants. Appearance before the milk temperature should be below 5 ℃. During transport, can not stop halfway . 4, in the milking , cooling, storage, transportation process, should operate in confined conditions , avoid contact with air, milk , non- toxic, harmful, volatile substances in contact with . 5 , keep clean milk room, milking machines, pipelines and transportation vehicles.

Six , cleaning, disinfecting cleaning milking equipment , disinfection 1 , cleaning, disinfecting the four elements (1 ) scouring force: only ensure adequate amount of water , in order to have enough power erosion . ( 2 ) Water temperature: Pre- rinse temperature (35-40) ℃, washing temperature (70-80) ℃, outlet temperature is kept after washing above 40 ℃ . ( 3 ) liquid concentration : be configured according to the package insert , to ensure concentration of the chemical . ( 4 ) Time : 30 minutes or more to ensure that the cleaning time . ( 5 ) cleaning and disinfection procedures : ① class before milking , milking equipment for the application of water to rinse , generally 10 minutes . ② Pre- rinse : After milking is completed, should be washed immediately , without any cleaning , just rinse with clean, warm water (35-40) ℃. Do not pre-rinse cycle , rinse the water to clear up . ③ caustic : alkali concentration PH11.5 ( lotion base concentration should be considered and the PH value of water hardness ) , performed immediately after the pre- wash , wash cycle ( 7-10 ) minutes, the temperature should be started ( 70-80 ) about ℃, after circulating water temperature can not be lower than 40 ℃. ④ acid : acid concentration PH3.5 ( concentration of acid lotion should consider water PH value and hardness ) cleaning cycle ( 7-10 ) minutes, the temperature should be around 60 ℃. ⑤ caustic acid used interchangeably , the general " two bases , one acid ." ⑥ Finally, rinse with warm water for 5 minutes. Cleaning is completed , the pipeline should not leave residual water.

Seven milk truck, milk tank cleaning , disinfecting a milk truck, milk tank and outside thoroughly cleaned after each use , disinfect again. 2 , warm water , water temperature requirements : (35-40) ℃. 3, with hot lye ( temperature 50 ℃) cycle cleaned and disinfected. Refrigeration power must be turned off before cleaning. 4 , rinse with water. ( 1 ) milk pumps, milk tube , section door cleaning , disinfection ( 2 ) milk pump , milk tubes, each section of the door once again washed with water . ( 3 ) milk pump , milk tube section of the door on a regular basis through the brush , cleaning twice a week . Eight , integrated management measures to ensure udder health , reduce the incidence of mastitis .


· Milk quality control advocate the implementation of mechanical milking cows 2014-3-11 This article has been read 3754 Time
 
 
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