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· Cows total mixed ration (TMR) feeding techniques

Cows total mixed ration (Total Mixed Ration, TMR) feeding technique is a kind of coarse material, fine materials , minerals , vitamins and other additives mixed , formulated into a complete feed , similar to the full price of pig or poultry feed , sends the material sent by the car , dissipate cattle fed ad libitum an advanced breeding techniques. TMR technology is a revolutionary breakthrough in modern dairy farming , which is in the dairy industry has been widely used in developed countries , and large-scale modernization of the domestic dairy farms has gradually started using this technique , and have achieved very good results . Preparation of TMR is the latest nutritional knowledge -based, full rumen function, improve feed utilization as a precondition , and possible use of local resources to reduce the cost of feed diets . Based on the characteristics of TMR technology, the basic conditions for application of TMR technology, applications and their precautions TMR technology and application effect TMR technology to make a brief introduction.
Features 1 TMR technology
1.1 cows in different production performance, different physiological periods of fine , coarse material is very different hobbies , fine , coarse material when cows were fed separately , can not guarantee each cow as people would expect a balanced intake of refined material, thus cause rumen dysfunction . Due to an appropriate proportion of the components of total mixed ration and mixed together , every cow total mixed ration dry matter intake , and contain nutritionally balanced and refined, coarse material than the appropriate nutrients, carbon and water available in the rumen decomposition compounds and the use of protein tend to be more synchronized ; while preventing cows in a short time due to excessive intake of concentrate and cause a sudden drop in rumen pH values ​​; able to maintain the number of rumen microorganisms , dynamic and relatively stable rumen environment , fermentation , digestion , absorption and metabolism of normal, which is conducive to improving the utilization and milk fat feed ; reduce digestive diseases such as stomach really shift , ketosis , milk fever , acidosis , poor appetite and nutritional stress , etc. likelihood of occurrence .
1.2 The traditional way to make feeding fine , coarse material fed separately , due to a variety of feed palatability of different , often resulting in insufficient intake of total dry matter , so that performance is affected, reproductive obstacles. Through the promotion of TMR feeding technology, expanding the use of bread, slag class original individual feeding the poor palatability and other feed resources. Because the technology allows a small number of cows feed , reduce and prevent animals from ammonia poisoning , and thus alleviate the imbalance between supply and demand protein resources , reduce costs has some potential dietary significance . In addition, the application of TMR feeding techniques , according to the growth of each cow nutritional needs at different developmental stages , under the premise of not reducing their productivity , the local farmers products ( such as straw ) and industrial byproducts ( such as lees ) and other appropriate treatment , be used effectively to prepare a corresponding minimum cost diet .
1.3 Studies show that the cows ingested the high levels of fine material (more than 60% of the diet ) , the more energy is ingested into the body tissue to be , without increasing milk production and milk fat content of milk is lower ; If the cows ingested roughage level is too high, insufficient energy intake . Using TMR technology, because considering the cellulose and protein, energy and other factors of different cows , the whole diet is balanced, that will help production performance of dairy cows .
1.4 high-yielding dairy cows must ensure that sufficient quantities of feed concentrate , sometimes to keep high-yield, each cow must be fed every day around 15kg of concentrate . If the traditional way of feeding , fine , roughage separately , because the cows ingested large amounts of fine material in a short time , upset the digestion and metabolism of nutrients in the rumen homeostasis , causing digestive disorders , can cause severe acidosis, thus affecting the production performance of the play . In addition to simple TMR technology , but also can guarantee the stability of cattle feed structure , while at the same comes naturally to arrange the best combination of feed and forage , thereby improving the utilization of grass.
1.5 on the cow concerned , TMR feeding techniques used to play in favor of its milk production performance, increase their reproductive rate , but it is also open to ensure timely replacement heifers produced the best feeding system. The use of TMR feeding techniques , can be removed during the milking fed concentrate shorten milking time, save manger area , a corresponding reduction in the cost of feeding equipment , but also to reduce dust between milking . In addition, high-yielding dairy cows without reducing performance ( milk yield and milk fat ) premise , TMR fiber levels can be more refined, coarse fiber gavage feeding points due to lower levels . This allows peak lactation cows in milk fat without reducing its premise dietary intake higher energy density to reduce the magnitude of weight loss , and thus maximize the cows to maintain body condition , but also conducive to the next improvement of conception rate .
1.6 TMR feeding techniques to help control production, it can change the material contained under the milk, in a certain range of TMR adjust to get the best value for money.
1.7 fine, coarse material is difficult to separate feeding improved dry matter intake of dairy cows , not guaranteed fine , coarse material than the fit and stability, not suitable large-scale, intensive management development feed of ; while disrupting the metabolism of the rumen digestion homeostasis ( volatile fatty acid production, bacterial protein synthesis, microbial flora ) . Use TMR feeding technology for large-scale industrial production, so feeding management and labor, save time, improve efficiency and labor productivity scale farming . Further , the process also reduces the waste fed forage .
2 basic conditions apply TMR technology
Preparation 2.1 TMR requires that all materials are uniformly mixed , silage , green fodder, hay machinery and equipment for special needs chopped or crumbled . In order to ensure balanced diet nutrition , good performance requires mixing and metering equipment. TMR mixer is usually carried out by mixing and sent directly to the cows manger , a one-time investment in equipment, high equipment costs.
2.2 TMR processed by a computer formula , enter the exact ingredients required content , the objective to investigate and analyze the need for frequent changes in the nutritional content of raw materials , especially raw water changes.
2.3 Overall cows need to be fed according to the physiological stage of clustering , performance , diet recipes every group is different, need to be treated separately. This requires dairy technician enthusiasm high , strong sense of responsibility . 2.4 If insufficient nutrient concentrations in early lactation TMR , the peak milk yield of cows may decline ; in mid to late lactation , low-yielding cows if not go lower nutrient concentration TMR group , the cows may become too fat .
    In short , TMR feeding techniques despite adding some additional costs , but to improve the production performance of dairy cows , which can improve economic efficiency . Practice has proved that , in considering the pros and cons of TMR feeding techniques based on the use of TMR technology cows increased revenue significantly higher than the additional cost . Of course, the actual increase in revenue is also affected by the size of the dairy operation . Studies show that for 100 dairy farms , milk production increased only significantly ( more than 5% ) , in order to increase net income ; while more than 200 dairy farms , milk production increased depending on the extent of which has different net income. It can be seen in terms of large-scale farms , TMR feeding is undoubtedly the use of technology to increase the effective measures to their economic and market competitiveness.
Use 3 TMR technology
    Compared with the traditional technique using TMR feeding method, you can use more coarse material . Generally grouped by stage of lactation , such as by early lactation , lactation mid and late lactation dry period clustering . 70d postpartum cow into early lactation group within this period of dietary concentrate more ; postpartum 70 ~ 140d of mid-lactation group , according to the average milk yield and the average weight of the ingredients ; postpartum 140d to a dry period for the group in late lactation and dry another lactating cows into a group , according to the nutritional needs of all ingredients . TMR technology employs a method of feeding ad libitum . Cattle feed dry matter than conventional farming methods , increase feed intake , lower nutrient concentrations favor the use of diet ( containing slightly more roughage diet ) , but also to maintain the energy needs of the cow , which is TMR technology can save concentrate , reduce cost reasons .
Currently, mostly dairy TMR silage, hay and concentrate feed composition , first crushing machinery or rub machine fodder for processing, then the mixer and mix the various ingredients into TMR, TMR fed directly from the feed car cows stadium manger for cows fed ad libitum throughout the day . Dairy formulators should grasp the TMR moisture content , timely adjustment of dietary nutrient concentration .
4 Before using TMR feeding techniques should be noted
4.1 Identification of appearance and performance measurement herd
    Dairy farm implement TMR feeding techniques , to regular individual cow milk yield , composition and quality of milk for testing, which is the basis of scientific breeding cows of different growth stages ( lactation , lactation stage ) and body condition cows to make a rational grouping , which is a necessary condition to improve overall production performance .
Conventional analysis 4.2 TMR and raw nutrients
    TMR and raw determination of the content of various nutrients formulated diet is the foundation of science , even if the same material ( such as corn silage and hay , etc. ) , because of different origin , harvesting period and the modulation method, the dry matter content and nutrients are quite differences, therefore , should be formulated based on the measured results corresponding TMR. In addition , you must always test the moisture content of the TMR and the actual dry matter intake of animals ( especially in high-yielding dairy cows and even more so real ) , in order to ensure a sufficient amount of animal feed .
4.3 changes the way farming should be a transition period
    When the grazing or conventional fine, coarse material of ad libitum feeding into TMR, there should be a period of adaptation , so that a smooth transition cows to avoid excessive intake caused by digestive disorders and acidosis .
4.4 to maintain ad libitum state
    TMR can use a larger manger , manger can do , but to build a platform outside the fence , the diets on the platform, for cows fed ad libitum .
4.5 Note change feed intake and body weight
    When using TMR feeding, appetite peak later than cow's milk production peak two to four weeks appeared to slow the decline in dry matter consumption ratio lactation milk yield ; in the mid and late lactation diets can be adjusted to fine , moderately coarse material than to control weight gain .
4.6 TMR nutritional balance and stability should be guaranteed
    In the preparation of TMR, forage quality, accurate metering , mixing performance and TMR mixer nutritional balance must be guaranteed.
5 TMR technology application results
    Cow developed countries of the world , such as the United States, Israel , Canada and Japan have been on the TMR feeding techniques and in-depth study of the system , the results of all studies have confirmed TMR technology is indeed an advanced dairy technology. Nobuo Takano (1993 ) reported that the implementation of Hokkaido, Japan 's 13 cow herd test from refined crude points feeding into TMR feeding, get good results. Full- lactation milk yield per cow increased by 821kg; while also improved milk ingredients , milk fat increased 0.09% , an increase of 0.1% non-fat solids . Full of bad Feeding Amount per head increased by an average of 753kg, net of bad material expenses increased average revenue per cow increased by about 62,000 yen . F.Bargo et al (2002 ) studied the production of high-yielding dairy cow performance under grazing , grazing and TMR plus three full TMR feeding system. Found in the whole system of TMR feeding the cows with the highest milk yield and maximum feed intake , while the milk fat and milk protein content is also higher. PRTozer et al (2003 ) made ​​the economic analysis of the study found that , despite the higher cost of production per kilogram of milk in the full TMR feeding system, but because this time the cows have higher milk production, while and better milk quality , the final net income per cow per day ( $ 5.61 ) or TMR than when grazing plus ( $ 5.28 ) and grazing ( $ 5.31 ) is high.
At present , China's Beijing to cooperate demonstration dairy farm , Beijing Sanyuan Group Co., Ltd. and Shanghai Bright Dairy 's dairy farm has gradually started using TMR feeding techniques , which are imported from Israel and the United States equipment and experimental research, for our country in under the current feeding level on how to effectively promote the use of reasonable TMR feeding techniques were actively explored . Here on the implementation of their research and make a brief introduction.
5.1 Specific implementation methods
    ① In TMR feeding technology implementation, accurately grasp the nutritional content of the coarse material changes to ensure that the cows feed into the essential nutrients in the technical implementation of the ranch before TMR crude material were detected on the basis of weekly time feed detection , and TMR timely adjustments.
    ② control nutrient concentration TMR , the laboratory weekly feed ingredients, Vice materials , and TMR feeding corn silage dry matter once (DM) test, control of TMR DM between 50 % to 60 %. Because when raw DM change , TMR ration formulation correct nutrient concentrations will fluctuate , causing cattle feed are equal excessive or inadequate nutrition diet , and ultimately affect milk production . Especially when less than 50% of TMR DM or greater than 60% , will be seriously affected cattle feed intake. Quality Center once a month to send nutrients TMR analysis , to monitor the quality of TMR .
    ③ TMR feeding do cluster feeding to the preparation of different concentrations of TMR. Throughout the manger of the material put in uniform, to control the speed and discharge rate , to avoid bunching . Multiple stacker , cattle continue to stimulate the appetite , increase the intake.
5.2 The practical result
    ① palatability observed , TMR especially in the morning , especially cow 's appetite is better than traditional breeding material palatability increases slightly the transition , cows can fully adapt .
    ② labor productivity . It must Minghua et al (2001 ) reported that Shanghai Shen Star Dairy implemented before TMR, breeding barn workers and cleaners for the 17 people, feeding workers as 7 people, a total of 24 people ; while after the implementation of TMR, reduced to 15 people, improve labor productivity rate of 37.5% .
    ③ ROI projections, Shanghai Shen Star Dairy TMR machine time investment 450,000 yuan , increasing fuel costs 40,000 yuan / year, maintenance costs 20,000 yuan / year. Reduce spending : 9 × 20 000 labor / year = 18 million / year ; 1-year vehicle maintenance concentrate ( 25 × 200 yuan = 5,000 million) ; labor time investment vehicle 25 × 600 yuan = 15 000. Return on investment : ( 450,000 yuan -1.5 million ) / ( 185,000 yuan -6 million ) = 3.48 years . A TMR machines generally use four years to recover the investment , the economic benefits are obvious.
    ④ implement a few months after the TMR feeding techniques , significantly increased milk yield , milk quality has also been improved. Lactating cows day yields than last year in varying degrees to improve milk fat and milk protein , cow yields 4.61% , increased by 6% milk fat , milk protein improved 1.67% .
5.3 Implementation Guidelines summary
    ① TMR fit and testing. TMR 's DM should be 50 % to 60% , otherwise it will limit the intake of dairy cows . Should also be weekly, monthly and TMR raw materials testing, prevention and TMR feeding cattle with diets actually have a big difference. After stirring with TMR 3cm sieve , samples should be retained accounted for more than 6% of the weight of long- fiber diet , or to affect cattle feed and ruminant an effective amount of fiber .
    ② TMR higher crude material quality requirements will affect the poor quality roughage intake of DM , will make high-yielding dairy cow nutrition in a negative balance.
    ③ TMR feed requirements simplistic, high quality, complex TMR feed varieties is not conducive to improving operations and labor productivity.
    ④ TMR requires measurement must be transferred from the platform to the scene to conduct surveillance operations TMR , TMR operations in strict accordance with the Code be enacted .
    ⑤ TMR once investment is large, on the road , equipment maintenance and repair requirements are high, and TMR for more stringent regulatory requirements . Otherwise , even the best recipe may also be due to some operational problems affecting human lactation performance and health of dairy cows . Therefore , there is no certain economic strength and technical management of poor pasture , do not recommend the use of TMR.

· Cows total mixed ration (TMR) feeding techniques 2014-3-11 This article has been read 5221 Time
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